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托福必考听力背景知识哲学篇,超全背景资料+真题

发布时间:2020-07-28 09:30:57浏览次数:257文章来源:培顿教育
导读:托福听力讲座类lecture涉及到的话题范围很广选材众多,其中有不少话题因为具有较高的学术性,因此考生在缺乏专业背景知识的情况下,会感觉十分生僻冷门无法理解具体内容!!

托福必考听力背景知识哲学篇,独家讲解视频+超全背景资料+真题

 

托福听力讲座类lecture涉及到的话题范围很广选材众多,其中有不少话题因为具有较高的学术性,因此考生在缺乏专业背景知识的情况下,会感觉十分生僻冷门无法理解具体内容!!

高频真题,场景必考词汇统统都有!!

ETS最喜欢考的托福听力背景都在这里了!!

托福听力满分冲鸭~

今天给大家带来托福听力背景知识之——Philosophy--哲学篇

1、Ancient Greek Philosophy

古希腊哲学, 公元前6-公元5世纪出现在希腊本土以及地中海(Mediterranean Sea)沿岸,特别是小亚细亚西部、意大利南部的哲学学说。是西方哲学(Western Philosophy)最初发生和发展 的阶段, 集中在辩论与质询上。

在很多方面,它同时为现代科学与现代哲学铺设了道路。早期希 腊哲学家对后世产生的影响从未间断,从早期哲学到文艺复兴(Renaissance),再到启蒙运动 (Enlightenment)和现代的普通科学。对许多宗教,包括基督教(Christian),也有着深远的影响。

Ancient Greek Philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Greece and most Greek-inhabited lands were part of the Roman Empire. Philosophy was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy, mathematics, political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric and aesthetics. Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture since its inception.

2、Socrates

苏格拉底(469~399 B.C.),古希腊著名思想家、哲学家 (philosopher)、教育家。苏格拉底与学生柏拉图 (Plato),以及柏拉图的学生亚里士多德 (Aristotle)并称为 “古希腊三贤” (the Big Three of Greek Philosophy),被后 人广泛地认为是西方哲学的奠基者。他属于形而上学派 (metaphysics)。雅典(Athens)公民,最后被雅典法庭以侮辱雅典神、引进新神论和腐蚀雅典青年思想之罪名判处 死刑。他的哲学思想标志着希腊哲学的一个分水岭 (watershed), 在他之前哲学家只研究自然哲学 (philosophy of nature),苏格拉底却开始研究伦理(ethics) ,让哲学“从天上回到了人间”。

Socrates

Socrates was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher of the Western ethical tradition of thought. Socrates exerted a strong influence on philosophers in later antiquity and in the modern era. Depictions of Socrates in art, literature and popular culture have made him one of the most widely known figures in the Western philosophical tradition.

TPO 43 Reading1:

The Athenian philosopher Socrates (470-399 B.C.) was the first person in Greece to propose a morality based on individual conscience rather than the demands of the state, and for this he was accused of not believing in the city’s gods and so corrupting the youth, and he was condemned to death.

在希腊,雅典哲学家苏格拉底(公元前470-399)是第一个提出道德要基于个人良心 而不是国家要求的人,因为这样,他被指控不信上帝和腐蚀青年,并且被判了死刑。

3、Plato

柏拉图(427~347 B.C.),他创造或发展的概念包 括柏拉图主义(Platonism)和柏拉图式爱情(Platonic Love)。柏拉图的主要作品为对话录《理想国》(The Public),书中主要论述了柏拉图心中理想的国家的构 建,治理等,其中绝大部分都有苏格拉底出场。柏拉图 是西方客观唯心主义(Objective idealism)的创始人。在西方哲学史上,柏拉图开创了第一家讲哲学思想的 学院(Academy),传播两方面的内容,一是教育 (Education),二是伦理道 德(Ethics)。

Plato

Plato was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought, and the Academy, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the pivotal figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy, along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle. Plato has also often been cited as one of the founders of Western religion and spirituality. Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy. Plato also appears to have been the founder of Western political philosophy.

TPO 31 Lecture1:

The philosopher, Plato, talks about this in the context of education. For Plato, music is an important element in education, but only the right kind of music. That means the kind of music that builds the kind of character a good citizen or a future leader would need. Yes. For Plato, there is a kind of music that instills the qualities of leadership, just as there is a kind of music that makes a person soft and weak. Now, Plato has very specific, very conventional kinds of music in mind. He is not fond of innovation. There were musicians in Plato’s day who were experimenting with different melodies and rhythms. A definite no-no for Plato. He thinks that breaking with tradition leads to all sorts of social problems, serious problems, even the breakdown of the fabric of society.

哲学家柏拉图,在教育的背景下讨论过这个。对于柏拉图来说,音乐对于教育是非常重要的元素,但这仅限于正确的音 乐。这种音乐指的是能够塑造一个好公民好的未来领导人优良品性的音乐。是的,对于柏拉图,有音乐是可以灌入领导力的品 性,这和有的音乐会使人软弱是一样的。由于在柏拉图的脑海中有着非常特定的、传统的音乐,他并不 是很喜欢创新。在柏拉图的那个时代,有些音乐家尝试不同的旋律和节奏。这对于柏拉图来说绝对是不可以的。他认为打破社会传统会导致各种社会问题,严重的问题,甚至会破坏社会的构造。

3、Aristotle

亚里士多德(384-322BC),古希腊人,世界古代史 上伟大的哲学家、科学家和教育家之一,希腊哲学的 集大成者。他是柏拉图的学生,亚历山大大帝 (Alexander the Great)的老师。作为一位百科全书式的 (encyclopedic)科学家,他几乎对每个学科都做出了贡 献。他的写作涉及伦理学(ethics)、形而上学 (metaphysics)、心理学(psychology)、经济学 (economics)、神学(theology)、政治学(politics)、修辞 学(rhetorics)、自然科学(natural science)、教育学、诗 歌(poetics),以及雅典法律。在教育上他主张学生德, 智,美全面发展,特别强调音乐在培养儿童修养方面 的作用。

Aristotle

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the "Father of Western Philosophy". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry.

TPO 2 Lecture3:

Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle - Aristotle's ethical theory. What Aristotle's ethical theory is all about is this:he's trying to show you how to be happy - what true happiness is… Well, Aristotle asks:is there something that all human beings value... and value only intrinsically, for its own sake and only for its own sake? If you could find such a thing, that would be the universal final good, or truly the ultimate purpose or goal for all human beings. Aristotle thought the answer was yes.What is it? Happiness. Everyone will agree, he argues, that happiness is the ultimate end...to be valued for itself and really only for itself.

我们需要讨论的另外一个古希腊哲学家是 亚里士多德--亚里士多德的伦理学说。亚里士多德的伦 理学说主要讲的是:他试着让你了解如何变得幸福快乐--什么是真正的幸福快乐。亚里士多德是这样设问的:存不存在这样的事物,所有人类都认为它有价值,而且是内在价值,因为 且仅仅因为其自身原因。如果你能找到这样的事物,那它应该这个世界终极的善举,或者说 是人类终极目标。亚里士多德给出的答案是肯定的。是什么呢?幸福。大家将不会反 对,他说 幸福快乐是且仅是衡量其本身的最终目标。

好啦,今天的哲学篇学习就到这里啦,小伙伴们看完文章学习觉得有用吗?

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