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托福写作头脑风暴的“冰淇淋法”

发布时间:2020-06-21 01:12:37浏览次数:116文章来源:培顿教育
导读: 一、万能理由冰淇淋  如果考托福写作时 无话可说, 即思路打不开,可以从冰淇淋法 ,即万能理由的角度去想。这一做法类似于英语中所

 一、万能理由“冰淇淋”

  如果考托福写作时“ 无话可说”, 即思路打不开,可以从“冰淇淋法” ,即“万能理由”的角度去想。这一做法类似于英语中所说的“头脑风暴”(brainstorming),就是在短时间之内就一个作文题进行自由联想,列出 能想到的全部观点,然后进行分类(如一个事物的正反两方面),供拟提纲和写作之用。“万能理由”共12 组(各组词中的两个词是独立的,之所以把两个词放在一起,纯粹是出于方便记忆的目的),取各组单词的首字母,得“iscrem”(其中c 代表4 组,e 代表3 组),发音近似“冰淇淋”(ice-cream),所以从万能理由的角度打开思路的方法被称之为“冰淇淋法”。也可以根据每组中文的第一个词组成口诀: “独立”(的)或“合作”(的)“知识”与“安全”“文化”“交流”“方便”“就业”、“经济”、“金钱”、“环境”与“权利”。

 

记忆方法

 

  二、实战训练成高能

  例如,

  Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement?

  An effective leader should try to make others feel that they are part of the decision making process.(2013 年1 月12 日考题)

  根据“冰淇淋法” 进行自由联想,可以列出下列观点:

  1. cooperation(需要与被领导者合作)

  2. communication and trust (交流消除误会、产

  生信任)

  3. time(沟通耗时间)

  4. emotion (参与流于形式,被领导者其实完全无权)

  5. interest(增强被领导者执行任务的动机)

  按照对被领导者参与决策一事儿的正反看法可以对上述的万能理由做如下分类:

 

 

  根据上述分类,可以拟出下面的提纲:

  Thesis statement(主题陈述):

  Although involving others in the decision making process may have disadvantages, leaders are well advised to do so, for positive outcomes far outweigh the disadvantages.

  Topic sentence of Para. 2(第二段主题句):

  Objectively, there are some disadvantages to asking others to participate in the decision making process. e.g. The process is time-consuming and makes participants feel frustrated if their input is not incorporated in the final decision.

  Topic sentence of Para. 3(第三段主题句):

  On the other hand, there are more benefits to involving others in the decision making process.

  e.g. The implementation of many decisions requirescooperation of participants.

  Topic sentence of Para. 4(第四段主题句):

  In addition, involving others in the decision making process enhances understanding of issues,builds trust and promotes motivation.

  又如,

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  Nowadays, more and more people are spending too much money on their pets, even though there can be better ways to spend money.(中国大陆2011

  年11 月12 日考题—— 北美 2010 年8 月13 日考题)

  根据“冰淇淋法” 进行自由联想,可以列出下列观点:

  1. emotion。人可以与宠物建立感情(bond);宠物可以陪伴主人,填充人际交往与朋友关系的真空(pets fill connection and friendship vacuums);宠物可以满足人当父母的情感需求(pets fulfill our need to nurture)

  2. environment。宠物可能给环境带来污染,如比较脏、比较臭(dirty & smelly),到处“方便”(随地大小便,pets pee and pooh as they like),却给人造成不便

  3. health。宠物给主人减轻压力(Pets are stress-busters—reducing stress),还可以保护主人(providing protection),但也可能传染疾病(如狂犬病rabies)

  4. money。人们竞相给宠物购买昂贵的衣食(costume and food);养有些宠物,如藏獒(Tibetan mastiff)可能投入不菲(expensive)

  5.time。必须时刻看着宠物(having to be around for them)

  按照对pets 的正反看法可以对上述的万能理由做如下分类:

 

 

 

  根据上述分类,可以拟出下面的提纲:

  Thesis statement(主题陈述):

  Although some people do not think that it is a good idea to have a pet, I believe that it is beneficial.

  Topic sentence of Para. 2(第二段主题句):

  People who do not have pets may think that pets are dirty.

  Topic sentence of Para. 3(第三段主题句):

  On the other hand, there are many positive reasons for owning a pet; pets are stressbusters.

  Topic sentence of Para. 4(第四段主题句):

  In addition , pets fill connection and friendship vacuums and fulfil our need to nurture.

  按照上述提纲,可以写出高分文章。以提纲中的“pets fill connection and friendship vacuums”这一点为例(完整的范文请参见p199),可以展开成下列段落:粗体部分是可以学习的用词,斜体部分是可以学习的句型;论证方法包含“对 比法”与“数据法”(请参见本书的“03 论证八法”)。

  Moreover, pets fill connection and friendship vacuums. Americans have about a third fewer close friends today than they did 20 years ago— averaging two rather than the three they had, on average, in 1985. And though online connections alleviate some of that loss, we’re neurologically less satisfied by online friends than we are by personal contact. Pets provide companionship and connection that we need more than ever today. Dogs, in particular, also increase human social circles through gatherings at parks and getting out into neighborhoods more often through walks.

  Cat owners also say they get plenty of emotional connection from their pets. In fact, nearly a third say they’d rather chat with their cat after a long day than anyone else, and 39% say their cat is more likely than a romantic partner to pick up on their current mood.

  Almost 95% of pet owners say their pet makes them smile at least once a day. It’s no wonder that multiple studies show that pets lower blood pressure, alleviate depression, and boost mental and physical resiliency.

  Given the emotional support, connection and happiness pets provide, it’s not surprising that people want to honor and reward them — often with goodies. (by Kit Yarrow)

  又如,

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  Automobiles have greater influence on society

  than airplanes. (2012 年8 月19 日考题)

  根据“ 冰淇淋法” 进行自由联想, 关于automobiles 可以列出下列观点:

  1. expense (=money)

  2. smog & noise (=environment)

  3. traffic accidents(=safety)

  4. can be beautiful(=interest)

  5. fun to drive(=interest)

  6. time spent commuting(=time)

  7. ecnomic importance(=economy)

  8. convenience(=convenience)

  按照对automobile 的正反看法可以对上述的万能理由做如下分类:

 

 

  根据“冰淇淋法” 进行自由联想,关于airplanes可以列出下列观点:

  1. traveling cost(=expense)

  2. speed (=efficiency & convenience)

  3. carbon footprint(=environment)

  4. bacteria in the cabin(=health)

  5. safest mode of transportation(=safety)

  6 . l o c a t e d o u t s i d e a m a j o r c i t y a n d

  additional journey time (=efficiency)

  7. multi-functional (spraying pesticide,

  rescuing, putting out forest fires, etc.)

  按照对airplane 的正反看法可以对上述的万能理由做如下分类:

 

 

  根据上述分类,可以拟出下面的提纲:

  Thesis statement(主题陈述):

  Although airplanes impact our travel in terms of speed, automobiles exert a greater influence on our society with respect to their ubiquity and economic significance in addition to other benefits.

  Topic sentence of Para. 2(第二段主题句):

  Objectively, there are some advantages to airplanes. Speed is the hallmark of air travel.

  Topic sentence of Para. 3(第三段主题句):

  On the other hand, there are more benefits to automobiles. A country’s economy relies more on automobiles than on airplanes.

  Topic sentence of Para. 4(第四段主题句):

  In addition, automobiles provide average citizens with more convenience and enjoyment.……

  根据“冰淇淋法”联想万能理由,从而打开思路,是解决“无话可说真难受”处境的有效手段之一。关键是平时能在分析写作题目时练习这种思维,考试时就能“文如泉涌”。

 

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